What is Canine Distemper Virus(CDV)?

Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). The disease is highly contagious, with high morbidity and mortality. It can cause lesions of canine epithelial cells and lymphocytes, and can also damage the canine mental system. Fewer than 50% of adult dogs infected with the disease die from it. In puppies, the mortality rate tends to reach 80%. This article analyzes and elaborates the epidemiology and pathogenesis of canine distemper to help you understand canine distemper.


Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, the genus Measles virus. Canine distemper virus (CDV) has weak resistance to the environment, is sensitive to ultraviolet light, and has weak thermal stability. It is inactivated by heating at 55°C for 1 hour or at 60°C for 30 minutes. It can survive at pH 4.5~9.0. It is sensitive to organic solvents such as ether and chloroform, and has a good bactericidal effect on 3% sodium hydroxide solution, 3% formaldehyde solution and bleach.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) can infect canines, hyenas, mustelids, raccoons and some cats, etc., but dogs are the main host. Dogs of all ages and breeds can be infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), with purebred dogs being more susceptible.

Sick dogs and infected dogs are the main sources of infection. The virus will spread outward through secretions and excrement, and even recovered dogs will detoxify for a long time. Healthy dogs can get sick through direct or indirect contact. In addition, the virus can also be transmitted through mating and placenta. But recovered dogs can gain lifelong immunity.

Pathogenic mechanism

After canine distemper virus (CDV) enters the mouth, it proliferates in the bronchial lymph nodes and tonsils. The virus is carried into the bloodstream with the lymphocytes, producing toxemia, which increases body temperature. The virus then spreads to lymph nodes, epithelial tissues, and bone marrow throughout the body, resulting in a second toxemia and elevated body temperature. Canine distemper virus (CDV) enters the central nervous system with lymphocytes or cerebrospinal fluid, and then damages neurons and white and gray matter, thereby causing neurological lesions.